Water Quality

The pH of water is a crucial parameter in both terrariums and aquariums because it directly impacts the health and well-being of the plants and animals living in these environments. Here are several reasons why maintaining the appropriate pH level is essential:

1. Biological Function and Health


  • Nutrient Availability: The pH level affects the availability of essential nutrients. For example, in terrariums, a pH that is too high or too low can limit the absorption of nutrients like iron, manganese, and phosphorus, leading to deficiencies and poor plant growth.
  • Soil Microorganisms: Beneficial microorganisms in the soil, which help in nutrient cycling and organic matter breakdown, thrive within specific pH ranges.

Aquatic Animals:

  • Enzyme Activity: Fish and other aquatic animals rely on enzymes for digestion, metabolism, and other vital functions. These enzymes function optimally within a specific pH range. Deviations can lead to metabolic stress or failure.
  • Osmoregulation: Aquatic animals regulate their internal salt and water balance through osmoregulation, a process influenced by pH. Incorrect pH levels can disrupt this balance, leading to health issues.

2. Environmental Stability

Chemical Stability:

  • Ammonia Toxicity: In aquariums, ammonia (NH3) is a byproduct of waste decomposition. The toxicity of ammonia increases at higher pH levels. Maintaining the correct pH helps keep ammonia in its less toxic form (ammonium, NH4+), ensuring a safer environment for fish.
  • Nutrient Solubility: In terrariums, nutrient solubility can be affected by pH. Some nutrients become less soluble and unavailable to plants if the pH is not within the optimal range.

3. Species-Specific Requirements

  • Habitat Simulation: Many plants and animals have evolved in environments with specific pH ranges. For instance, some fish species thrive in acidic water (e.g., Amazonian fish like discus), while others prefer alkaline conditions (e.g., African cichlids). Mimicking these natural conditions in an aquarium or terrarium helps ensure the well-being and natural behavior of the inhabitants.
  • Reproductive Success: The pH of water can affect reproductive processes. Many aquatic species require specific pH levels for successful spawning, egg development, and larval growth.

4. Disease Prevention

  • Pathogen Control: Some pathogens thrive at certain pH levels. Maintaining the proper pH can help prevent the proliferation of harmful bacteria, fungi, and parasites, reducing the likelihood of disease outbreaks.

5. Water Quality Management

  • Alkalinity and Buffering Capacity: The pH of water is influenced by its alkalinity (buffering capacity). Stable pH levels are indicative of good buffering capacity, which helps prevent sudden pH swings that can stress or kill plants and animals.
  • Water Chemistry: In aquariums, pH is an integral part of water chemistry, alongside other parameters like hardness (GH and KH), nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia levels. Regular monitoring and adjustments ensure a balanced and healthy environment.

Managing pH in Terrariums and Aquariums


  • Use pH test kits or electronic pH meters to regularly monitor the pH levels in your terrarium or aquarium.

Adjusting pH:

  • Buffers: Use commercial pH buffers to adjust and stabilize the pH.
  • Natural Methods: Incorporate materials like peat moss (to lower pH) or crushed coral (to raise pH) to naturally adjust the water’s pH.
  • Water Changes: Regular water changes with properly conditioned water can help maintain the desired pH.

Prevention of pH Fluctuations:

  • Avoid overfeeding and overstocking, as these can contribute to waste accumulation and pH changes.
  • Use substrates and decorations that do not alter the pH unless they are intended to do so for specific environmental needs.

In conclusion, maintaining the correct pH in a terrarium or aquarium is essential for the health, growth, and overall well-being of the plants and animals within these environments. Regular monitoring and appropriate adjustments are key to achieving a stable and suitable habitat.

Safe and Attractive Rocks for Terrariums

If the rock is not in the list below or on the Rocks NOT to use. Perform a test to find out if it is safe to use.

Perform a vinegar test to ensure the rocks are inert. Drop vinegar on the rock; if it fizzes, it contains calcium carbonate and may alter water chemistry (not suitable for aquatic or amphibian terrariums).

Choosing the right rocks for your terrarium is essential for both aesthetic appeal and the safety of the plants and animals housed within. Here are some recommendations for safe and attractive rocks to use in terrariums:

1. Slate

Slate is smooth and flat, often dark grey, blue to black.Slate is non-toxic and does not alter water chemistry. Its flat surfaces make it ideal for creating ledges and levels.Use slate pieces to create backgrounds, ledges, or stepping stones.

2. River Rocks

River rocks are smooth, rounded stones, available in various sizes and colours. Naturally polished by water, these rocks are safe and aesthetically pleasing. They are inert and won’t affect water chemistry.Ideal for lining the bottom of the terrarium, creating natural-looking pathways, or as decorative accents.

3. Quartz

Quartz can be clear, white, or colored crystals with a shiny surface. Quartz is a hard, non-reactive mineral that is safe for all terrarium inhabitants. Its crystal-like appearance adds visual interest. Use quartz as focal points, accent pieces, or combined with other stones for a sparkling effect.

4. Lava Rocks

Lava Rock is porous, rough texture, typically red, black, or brown. Lightweight and porous, lava rocks provide excellent drainage and aeration. They also offer a unique, rugged look. Use lava rocks as a substrate base for drainage or as decorative elements.

5. Sandstone

Sandstone is grainy texture, available in various earthy tones such as tan, red, and brown. Sandstone is relatively soft and easy to shape. It is inert and safe for terrariums.Ideal for creating naturalistic backgrounds, cliffs, and rock formations.

6. Granite

Granite is hard, speckled appearance in a range of colours, including grey, pink, and black. Granite is very durable and non-reactive, making it a safe choice for terrariums.Use granite pieces to add a touch of rugged elegance to your terrarium.

7. Dragon Stone (Ohko Stone)

Dragon Stone is brownish rock with a unique, craggy texture and lots of holes.Dragon stone is lightweight and has a distinctive appearance, ideal for creating intricate designs. Excellent for aqua scaping and creating intricate landscapes in both open and closed terrariums.

8. Petrified Wood

Petrified Wood is fossilized wood with a smooth, polished look, available in various colours. Non-reactive and visually striking, petrified wood adds a natural yet ancient feel to the terrarium. Use as focal points or combined with plants and other natural elements for a prehistoric look.

Safety Tips for Using Rocks in Terrariums

  1. Thoroughly clean all rocks before placing them in the terrarium to remove dirt, debris, and potential contaminants.
  2. Perform a vinegar test to ensure the rocks are inert. Drop vinegar on the rock; if it fizzes, it contains calcium carbonate and may alter water chemistry (not suitable for aquatic or amphibian terrariums).
  3. Smooth any sharp edges that could harm animals.
  4. Ensure the rocks are stable and won’t topple over, potentially injuring inhabitants or damaging plants.
  5. Arrange rocks to create natural-looking landscapes and hide any wiring or equipment.

By selecting the right types of rocks and following these safety guidelines, you can create a beautiful and safe environment in your terrarium that enhances the well-being of its inhabitants and adds to its visual appeal.

See Rocks NOT to use

Rocks to Avoid in a Terrarium

When setting up a terrarium, it’s crucial to avoid certain types of rocks that could be harmful to the plants and animals. Some rocks can alter the pH and chemistry of the soil or water, while others may have sharp edges or contain toxic minerals. Here are rocks to avoid in terrariums:

1. Limestone

  • Issues: Limestone is composed mainly of calcium carbonate, which can raise the pH of the soil or water, making it alkaline.
  • Impact: This can be harmful to plants and animals that require neutral or acidic conditions.

2. Marble

  • Issues: Similar to limestone, marble is also made of calcium carbonate and can affect the pH balance of the terrarium.
  • Impact: It can make the environment too alkaline, which is unsuitable for most terrarium inhabitants.

3. Sandstone (in aquariums)

  • Issues: While sandstone is generally safe for dry terrariums, it can disintegrate and alter the water chemistry if used in aquariums.
  • Impact: This can lead to water quality issues and potentially harm aquatic life.

4. Chalk

  • Issues: Chalk is another form of calcium carbonate and can severely alter the pH levels.
  • Impact: It can quickly make the environment too alkaline for plants and animals that thrive in more neutral conditions.

5. Soft Rocks

  • Examples: Gypsum and talc.
  • Issues: These rocks are too soft and can break down easily, altering the substrate and water chemistry.
  • Impact: They can make the environment unstable and unsuitable for most terrarium life.

6. Rocks with High Metal Content

  • Examples: Pyrite (fool’s gold), galena, and any rocks with visible metallic veins.
  • Issues: These rocks can leach heavy metals into the soil or water.
  • Impact: Heavy metals can be toxic to both plants and animals, causing health issues or death.

7. Rocks with Sharp Edges

  • Examples: Broken glassy rocks, some types of slate.
  • Issues: Sharp edges can injure animals or damage plant roots.
  • Impact: Can cause physical harm and stress to terrarium inhabitants.

8. Dyed or Painted Rocks

  • Issues: Artificially colored rocks can leach dyes and chemicals into the terrarium environment.
  • Impact: These chemicals can be toxic to plants and animals, affecting their health and well-being.

Safety Testing for Rocks

Before placing any rock in your terrarium, you can perform simple tests to ensure their suitability:

  1. Vinegar Test: Apply a few drops of vinegar to the rock. If it fizzes, the rock contains calcium carbonate and is unsuitable for terrariums that require stable pH.
  2. Water Soak Test: Soak the rock in water for a few days and test the water pH before and after. Significant changes in pH indicate that the rock is affecting the water chemistry.

General Tips

  • Research: Ensure you know the composition of the rock before adding it to your terrarium.
  • Source: Obtain rocks from reputable sources rather than collecting them from unknown environments, as this can introduce unwanted contaminants.
  • Inspection: Always inspect rocks for potential hazards, including sharp edges and signs of metal content.

By avoiding these types of rocks, you can help ensure a stable, healthy, and safe environment for your terrarium’s plants and animals.

See Safe Rocks to use

How to Install a Waterfall in a Terrarium

Installing a waterfall in a terrarium can create a beautiful and dynamic focal point, providing both aesthetic and functional benefits such as increased humidity and water circulation. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to install a waterfall in a terrarium:

Materials Needed

A suitable size Terrarium Tank for your setup. A submersible pump appropriate for the size of your waterfall. Flexible tubing to connect the pump to the waterfall outlet. A container for the pump and water reservoir (e.g., a plastic container or small pond liner). Optional mesh or filter material to keep debris out of the pump.

Natural or artificial rocks to create the waterfall structure. Aquarium-safe silicone sealant to secure rocks and tubing or super glue and tissue can be used to connect rocks and stones.

Gravel, sand, or soil substrate for the base.

Aquatic and terrestrial plants to enhance the natural look.

Step-by-Step Instructions

Plan Your Design:

Decide where you want the waterfall to be in the terrarium. Consider the overall design and how the water flow will integrate with other elements. Ensure the water will flow back into the reservoir or a designated pool area to avoid flooding.

Prepare the Base:

Place the waterproof container in the desired location for the water reservoir. This container will house the pump and collect the water.

Add a layer of substrate around the container, creating a natural-looking base. Ensure the container is well-hidden but accessible for maintenance.

Install the Pump.

Place the submersible pump inside the waterproof container.

Attach the flexible tubing to the pump outlet. Ensure the tubing is long enough to reach the top of the waterfall structure.

Build the Waterfall Structure:

Start building the waterfall using rocks or stones. Begin at the base and work upwards, stacking and securing the rocks with aquarium-safe silicone sealant. Hide the tubing behind the rocks, ensuring it emerges at the top of the waterfall where the water will flow out.

Use the silicone sealant to secure the tubing in place and ensure it stays hidden. Allow the sealant to dry completely.

Position the end of the tubing at the top of the waterfall structure. You may need to adjust the tubing to control the flow and direction of the water.

Fill the reservoir with water and turn on the pump to test the water flow. Adjust the rocks and tubing as needed to create a smooth and natural-looking waterfall.

Add more substrate around the waterfall structure to blend it seamlessly into the terrarium landscape.

Plant aquatic and terrestrial plants around the waterfall to enhance the natural look. Choose plants that thrive in high humidity.

Add additional decorations like driftwood, moss, or small stones to complete the design.


Regularly check and maintain the water level in the reservoir to ensure the pump operates properly.

Periodically clean the pump and tubing to prevent clogs and ensure efficient water flow.

Trim and care for the plants as needed to keep the terrarium healthy and aesthetically pleasing.

Tips for a Successful Waterfall Installation

Choose a pump with adjustable flow to control the water speed and volume.

Ensure all joints and connections are sealed properly to prevent leaks.

Use a variety of rock sizes and shapes to create a more natural-looking waterfall.

Consider adding lighting to highlight the waterfall and create a stunning visual effect.

By following these steps, you can install a beautiful and functional waterfall in your terrarium, enhancing both its aesthetic appeal and environmental conditions for the plants and animals living inside.

Fernery or fernerium

Fernery or fernerium

A collection of ferns in a terrarium is often referred to as a “fernery” or “fernerium.” These terms specifically describe a terrarium that is primarily dedicated to cultivating various species of ferns. Ferns thrive in humid environments, making them well-suited for terrariums where humidity and temperature can be controlled to create ideal growing conditions.

Creating a Fernery

If you are interested in setting up a fernery, here are some steps and tips to help you get started:

Choose a container that provides ample space for your ferns to grow. Glass containers, such as aquariums, glass jars, or specially designed terrariums, are ideal.

A lid helps maintain humidity, which is crucial for ferns. However, ensure there is some ventilation to prevent mold growth.

Add a layer of small pebbles or expanded clay pellets at the bottom to facilitate drainage and prevent waterlogging. Next add a thin layer of activated charcoal helps keep the terrarium fresh by absorbing odors and preventing mold.

Best to use a well-draining, organic-rich soil mix. A blend of potting soil, peat moss, and perlite works well for ferns.

Choose a variety of ferns that thrive in similar conditions. Some popular choices include Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum), Bird’s Nest Fern (Asplenium nidus), and Boston Fern (Nephrolepis exaltata). Arrange the ferns in the terrarium, ensuring they have enough space to grow. Plant taller ferns at the back and smaller ones at the front for a layered effect.

Maintain high humidity levels by misting the terrarium regularly. Using a humidity gauge can help you monitor the levels. Water the ferns regularly but avoid overwatering. The substrate should be moist but not soggy.

Positioning your creation, place the terrarium in a location with bright, indirect light. Avoid direct sunlight, which can overheat the terrarium and damage the ferns. 60-75°F (15-24°C) is an ideal temperature for most ferns

Trim dead or yellowing fronds to keep the terrarium looking neat and to prevent disease.

Inspect the ferns regularly for pests such as aphids or mites. If pests are found, treat them promptly with appropriate methods.

Feed the ferns with a diluted, balanced liquid fertilizer during the growing season, typically once a month. This will add lush greenery and a serene, natural beauty to any space. They are also known for their air-purifying properties, helping to improve indoor air quality. The presence of ferns can help increase humidity levels in the surrounding environment, which can be beneficial for other plants and your home’s overall air quality.

Creating a fernery allows you to enjoy the beauty and tranquillity of ferns within a controlled, miniature ecosystem. With proper care and maintenance, a fernery can be a stunning and low-maintenance addition to your home or office.

Benefits of a Closed Terrarium

A closed terrarium is an enclosed environment that creates a self-sustaining ecosystem with its own microclimate. This type of terrarium is particularly suited for plants that thrive in high-humidity environments. Here are the benefits of a closed terrarium:

1. Self-Sustaining Ecosystem

  • Benefit: Closed terrariums can create a self-sustaining environment where water cycles naturally through condensation and evaporation.
  • Advantage: This minimizes the need for frequent watering, as the closed system recycles moisture.

2. High Humidity

  • Benefit: The enclosed space traps moisture, maintaining a consistently high humidity level.
  • Advantage: Ideal for tropical plants and humidity-loving species such as ferns, mosses, and orchids, which thrive in these conditions.

3. Stable Environment

  • Benefit: Closed terrariums provide a stable environment with less fluctuation in temperature and humidity.
  • Advantage: Beneficial for delicate plants that require consistent conditions to grow well.

4. Minimal Maintenance

  • Benefit: Once established, closed terrariums require minimal maintenance.
  • Advantage: The need for watering is significantly reduced due to the natural water cycle within the terrarium, making it easier to care for over time.

5. Educational Value

  • Benefit: Closed terrariums serve as excellent educational tools, demonstrating principles of ecology, the water cycle, and plant biology.
  • Advantage: They can be used to teach children and adults about ecosystems, sustainability, and plant care in a hands-on manner.

6. Aesthetic Appeal

  • Benefit: Closed terrariums create a lush, miniature landscape that can be very aesthetically pleasing.
  • Advantage: They can serve as attractive, low-maintenance decorative pieces for homes, offices, or public spaces.

7. Protection from Pests

  • Benefit: The enclosed environment protects the plants from common pests such as aphids and spider mites.
  • Advantage: Reduces the need for pest control measures and keeps the plants healthier.

8. Microclimate Control

  • Benefit: You can control the microclimate within a closed terrarium more easily than in an open environment.
  • Advantage: Allows for the cultivation of a diverse range of plants that may not thrive in the ambient conditions of a typical home.

9. Reduced Evaporation

  • Benefit: The enclosed system significantly reduces water evaporation.
  • Advantage: Conserves water and ensures plants have a consistent moisture supply, which is particularly beneficial in dry climates or for people who travel frequently.

10. Encourages Root Growth

  • Benefit: The humid environment promotes healthy root growth for many plant species.
  • Advantage: Plants with well-established root systems tend to be healthier and more resilient.

Ideal Plants for Closed Terrariums

  1. Ferns
    • Examples: Maidenhair fern, Boston fern.
    • Benefits: Thrive in high humidity and low light conditions.
  2. Mosses
    • Examples: Sheet moss, Cushion moss.
    • Benefits: Prefer constant moisture and high humidity.
  3. Orchids
    • Examples: Miniature orchids, Phalaenopsis.
    • Benefits: Appreciate the stable, humid environment.
  4. Peperomias
    • Examples: Peperomia obtusifolia, Peperomia caperata.
    • Benefits: Enjoy the humidity and grow well in low to moderate light.
  5. Pothos
    • Examples: Golden pothos, Marble queen.
    • Benefits: Tolerant of low light and high humidity, making them ideal for closed terrariums.
  6. Fittonia (Nerve Plant)
    • Examples: Fittonia albivenis.
    • Benefits: Requires high humidity and consistent moisture, and thrives in the conditions provided by closed terrariums.

Maintenance Tips for Closed Terrariums

  1. Watering:
    • Water sparingly. The goal is to keep the soil moist but not soggy. The closed system recycles water, so overwatering can lead to mold and root rot.
  2. Lighting:
    • Provide indirect light. Direct sunlight can cause overheating and condensation. LED grow lights can be used to supplement natural light if necessary.
  3. Ventilation:
    • Occasionally open the lid to allow fresh air exchange and prevent mold buildup. This can be done every few weeks.
  4. Pruning:
    • Regularly prune plants to prevent overcrowding and remove dead leaves to maintain a healthy environment.
  5. Cleaning:
    • Keep the glass clean to ensure adequate light penetration and maintain the aesthetic appeal.


Closed terrariums offer numerous benefits, particularly for plants that thrive in humid, stable environments. They require minimal maintenance, create a visually appealing display, and can serve as educational tools. By selecting the right plants and providing proper care, a closed terrarium can be a thriving, self-sustaining ecosystem that enhances any indoor space.

An Open Terrarium v Closed Terrarium

Open Terrarium

Open Terrarium
An open terrarium is a type of terrarium that features an open top, allowing for greater air circulation and less humidity compared to closed terrariums. These terrariums are particularly suited for plants and environments that thrive in drier conditions with good airflow.

Key Features:

Open Top: No lid or covering, providing free exchange of air with the surrounding environment.
Air Circulation: Enhanced airflow helps prevent excess moisture and mould growth.
Humidity Control: Naturally lower humidity levels, making it ideal for plants that prefer drier conditions.

Prevents Over-Humidity:
Benefit: Open terrariums reduce the risk of excess humidity, which can lead to mould, mildew, and fungal growth.
Advantage Over Closed: Closed terrariums can trap moisture, leading to overly humid conditions that are unsuitable for many plants.
Ideal for Dry-Climate Plants:
Benefit: Provides a suitable environment for succulents, cacti, and other xerophytes that thrive in dry conditions.
Advantage Over Closed: Closed terrariums typically create a humid environment, which can be detrimental to these types of plants.
Enhanced Air Circulation:
Benefit: Improved airflow helps to reduce stagnant air, promoting healthier plant growth and reducing the likelihood of pest infestations.
Advantage Over Closed: Closed terrariums can suffer from poor air circulation, which may lead to plant stress and disease.
Temperature Regulation:
Benefit: Open terrariums can better handle temperature fluctuations, as they allow heat to dissipate more easily.
Advantage Over Closed: Closed terrariums can trap heat, potentially leading to temperatures that are too high for some plants.
Ease of Maintenance:
Benefit: Easier to water and tend to plants without the need to remove a lid. Less concern about condensation and mold buildup.
Advantage Over Closed: Closed terrariums often require careful monitoring and adjustments to maintain appropriate humidity and prevent condensation issues.
Benefit: Open terrariums often have a more modern and sleek appearance, making them an attractive addition to home decor.
Advantage Over Closed: They can be styled more freely without the visual barrier of a lid, enhancing their visual appeal.
Examples: Echeveria, Haworthia, Aloe, and Sedum.
Benefits: These plants store water in their leaves, making them well-suited for the dry conditions of an open terrarium.
Examples: Mammillaria, Opuntia, and Rebutia.
Benefits: Cacti thrive in low-humidity environments and need good airflow to prevent rot.
Air Plants (Tillandsia):
Benefits: These plants can be placed in open terrariums to take advantage of the good airflow and minimal soil requirements.
Examples: Basil, Thyme, and Rosemary.
Benefits: Many herbs prefer dry conditions and good air circulation, making them suitable for open terrariums.
Water sparingly and ensure the soil dries out between waterings to prevent root rot.
Provide bright, indirect light. Succulents and cacti may need more direct sunlight.
Use well-draining soil mixes, such as cactus or succulent soil, to prevent waterlogging.
Regularly remove dead leaves and debris to prevent mould and pest issues.
Open terrariums offer several benefits over closed terrariums, especially for plants that thrive in dry, well-ventilated environments. They are easier to maintain, help prevent issues related to excess humidity, and can accommodate a variety of attractive, low-maintenance plants like succulents and cacti. This makes them an excellent choice for both novice and experienced plant enthusiasts looking to create a beautiful and sustainable plant display.

Open Terrarium

An open terrarium is a type of container garden designed to house plants, typically of a small size, without a lid or cover. Unlike closed terrariums, which create a sealed environment with high humidity, open terrariums allow for greater air circulation and are ideal for plants that prefer a drier environment. Here are some common uses and benefits of open terrariums:

Uses of Open Terrariums

Home Decor:

Open terrariums add a touch of greenery and natural beauty to indoor spaces. Their aesthetic appeal makes them popular for decorating homes, offices, and other indoor areas.

Plant Display:

They are an excellent way to display small plants, particularly succulents and cacti, which thrive in the drier conditions provided by open terrariums.

Educational Purposes:

Open terrariums can be used in educational settings to teach students about plant biology, ecosystems, and the care of different plant species.

Stress Relief:

Caring for plants and maintaining a terrarium can be a relaxing and stress-relieving activity, providing a sense of accomplishment and connection to nature.

Hobby and Craft:

Many people enjoy creating and customizing terrariums as a hobby, experimenting with different plant combinations and decorative elements like stones, moss, and miniature figures.

Benefits of Open Terrariums

Low Maintenance:

Open terrariums typically require less maintenance than traditional potted plants or closed terrariums. The open design allows excess moisture to evaporate, reducing the risk of mold and root rot.

Improved Air Circulation:

The open design ensures better air flow, which is beneficial for many plants that are prone to fungal issues in stagnant air conditions.


Open terrariums can accommodate a variety of plants that prefer different light and moisture levels, making them versatile for different indoor environments.


The open design allows for creative arrangements and the inclusion of decorative elements, enhancing the visual appeal of the terrarium.

Space Efficiency:

They are compact and can fit into small spaces, making them ideal for urban dwellers with limited room for larger plants.

Plants Suitable for Open Terrariums


Echeveria, Haworthia, Aloe, and Crassula species are well-suited due to their low water requirements.


Small cacti varieties thrive in the dry conditions of open terrariums.

Air Plants:

Tillandsia species can be placed in open terrariums, as they do not require soil and benefit from the good air circulation.

Ferns and Mosses:

Certain types of ferns and mosses can also do well, provided they are watered appropriately.

Creating an Open Terrarium

Choose a Container:

Select a glass container with an open top, such as a bowl, vase, or jar.


Start with a layer of small stones or pebbles for drainage, followed by activated charcoal to prevent odors and mold. Add a layer of sphagnum moss to keep the soil from settling into the drainage layer.

Add Soil:

Use a well-draining potting mix suitable for the plants you choose.


Arrange your plants in the soil, leaving space between them to allow for growth.


Add decorative elements like rocks, sand, or miniature figurines to enhance the visual appeal.


Place the terrarium in a location with appropriate light for the plants. Water sparingly, as overwatering is a common mistake in open terrariums.

Open terrariums offer a beautiful, low-maintenance way to enjoy indoor gardening and bring a bit of nature into your living space.